Medicine of Extreme Situations
Scientific and Practical reviewed Journal
of FMBA of Russia

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№1, 2016 (March)

Russian Experience in the Medical Support of Extravehicular Activity Conducted from the International Space Station: 2001-2015.

Year: 2016 (March) Number: №1 Pages: 8-18

Heading: Biomedical research in the interests of deep space exploration.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: V.P. Katuntsev, Yu.Yu. Osipov, S.N. Filipenkov, G.G. Tarasenkov, A.N. Krasnov.

Organization:

Research Institute for Space Medicine Federal Research Clinical Center of Specialized Types of Medical Care and Medical Technologies, Federal Biomedical Agency of Russia, Moscow;
SSC — RF-Institute for Biomedical Problems of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow;
Scientific & Production Enterprise «Zvezda», Tomilino, Moscow region;
Gagarin Cosmonauts Training Center Zvezdniy Gorodok, Moscow region.

Annotation:

This paper summarizes and analyses the principal results of medical support of 48 two-person sessions of extravehicular activities (EVAs) which were carried out from the Russian Segment of the International Space Station in «Orlan» spacesuits during the 15-year period between June 2001 and August 2015. The EVAs were participated by forty-two crew members and the maximum duration of a spacewalk was equal to 8 h 07 min. The research contains a detailed description of Russian EVAs medical support system and methods of monitoring cosmonaut`s health status, approach to EVAs decompression safety, peculiarities of cosmonauts’ work and rest schedules during EVAs training and performance. All extravehicular activities performed in «Orlan» spacesuits from the ISS were completed successfully. Medical monitoring and analysis of spacesuit life support system parameters made it possible to reliably control cosmonauts’ health status and predict and prevent negative developments.

Keywords:

Medical monitoring, cosmonaut, extra-vehicular activity, spaceflight, International Space Station, spacesuit, microgravity, altitude decompression sickness, work and rest schedule.

Medical examination of cosmonauts, having completed their flight activity.

Year: 2016 (March) Number: №1 Pages: 19-24

Heading: Biomedical research in the interests of deep space exploration.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: M.V. Baranov, S.Yu. Zakharov, O.N. Novikova, E.A. Rudenko.

Organization: Research Institute for Space Medicine Federal Research Clinical Center of Specialized Types of Medical Care and Medical Technologies, Federal Biomedical Agency of Russia, Moscow.

Annotation:

The article is devoted to the analysis of a special program for medical examination of cosmonauts who have completed their flight activity. The study identified main occupational risk factors, comparison groups, the in-depth primary medical examination program, as well as the main difficulties in its implementation and proposed ways of overcoming them.

Keywords:

Factors of spaceflight, microgravity, cosmonauts, morbidity analysis, health risks, medical examination.

The influence of prolonged head-down and head-up bed rest on orthostatic tolerance in humans.

Year: 2016 (March) Number: №1 Pages: 25-29

Heading: Biomedical research in the interests of deep space exploration.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: A.N. Kotov, S.Yu. Zakharov, E.A. Rudenko, V.M. Baranov.

Organization: Research Institute for Space Medicine Federal Research Clinical Center of Specialized Types of Medical Care and Medical Technologies, Federal Biomedical Agency of Russia, Moscow.

Annotation:

The paper examines the influence of prolonged hypokinesia on orthostatic tolerance in eleven healthy male subjects aged 19–35 years. Five subjects underwent 21 days of hypokinesia in head-down bed rest (HDBR) position at a –6 degrees angle, simulating microgravity. Six subjects spent the first five days of hypokinesia in a HDBR position and subsequent sixteen days — in head-up bed rest (HUBR) at a +9.6 degrees angle as a supposed analogue of lunar gravity. Passive orthostatic tests were carried out two days before the begining of hypokinesia and on the first day of the recovery period. Prolonged HDBR and HUBR significantly decreased the orthostatic tolerance of subjects. But, the cases of development of orthostatic intolerance in subjects were observed more frequently after antiorthostatic hypokinesia.

Keywords:

Hypokinesia, head-down bed rest, head-up bed rest, orthostatic test.

Comparative analysis of biomechanical parameters of human Walking at a different pace during simulated microgravity and Lunar gravity.

Year: 2016 (March) Number: №1 Pages: 30-39

Heading: Biomedical research in the interests of deep space exploration.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: A.V. Shpakov, A.V. Voronov.

Organization: Research Institute for Space Medicine Federal Research Clinical Center of Specialized Types of Medical Care and Medical Technologies, Federal Biomedical Agency of Russia, Moscow; Federal Research Center of Physical Education and Sports, Moscow.

Annotation:

The biomechanical characteristics of walking before and after being exposed to longterm simulated microgravity and lunar gravity were examined in 22 healthy male volunteers aged 18–35 years. Physiological effects of microgravity were simulated by head-down bed rest. To simulate the physiological effects of lunar gravity a new head-up bed rest method was used. According to the protocol of this ground-based experiment the volunteers performed the locomotor test that included walking at a pace of 60 and 120 steps/minute on the treadmill. The biomechanical characteristics of the walking were recorded by a system for video analysis of motion. During the processing of experimental materials we analyzed the angular magnitude in the joints of the legs (hip, knee, and ankle) which were determined at separate relativetime points of the double step (placing a foot on the support, the push back phase and the swing phase). The paper contains the results of a comparative analysis of biomechanical parameters of Walking at a different pace and the effects of simulated microgravity and Lunar gravity on these walking characteristics. Variability of walking with a different pace was also estimated. The most pronounced changes in the parameters of the walking were found in volunteers after a long head-down bed rest in simulated microgravity. The data obtained reflected the change in angles of the leg joints during the separate relativetime points of the double step.

Keywords:

Video analysis of motion, locomotions, angles of the joints, simulated microgravity, head-down bed rest, lunar gravity, head-up bed rest, double step, phases of double step.

Acoustical evaluation of human lung function during simulation of physiological effects of microgravity and lunar gravity.

Year: 2016 (March) Number: №1 Pages: 40-49

Heading: Biomedical research in the interests of deep space exploration.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: V.V. Malaeva, V.I. Korenbaum, I.A. Pochekutova, A.E. Kostiv, S.N. Shin, V.P. Katuntsev, V.M. Baranov.

Organization: V.I. Il’ichev Pacific Oceanological Institute, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Vladivostok; Research Institute for Space Medicine Federal Research Clinical Center of Specialized Types of Medical Care and Medical Technologies, Federal Biomedical Agency of Russia, Moscow.

Annotation:

The objective of the study was to evaluate pulmonary ventilation function in humans by forced expiratory tracheal noise time (FETNT) analysis during simulated microgravity and lunar gravity. The study was conducted among 11 healthy male volunteers divided into two test groups. The first group («ANOG») consisted of 5 men who stayed in head-down (–6°) bed rest (HDBR) position, simulating a 21-day space flight in microgravity. The second group («SELENA») consisted of 6 men who also spent the first 5 days of the experiment in a head down tilt position (ANOG) , however, on the 6-th day they were moved to a head-up (+9.6°) tilt position, simulating lunar gravity, and remained in this position till the last (21-st) day of the experiment. Benchmark FETNT and spirometry data were registered in the sitting position upon completion of the training period and two days prior to the beginning of hypokenesia, as well as during the recovery period - on the 2nd day after the completion of the experiment, During the principal gravity exposure, measurements were taken on the 3-rd, 6-th, 9-th, 14-th, 20-th day of bed rest in a head-down or head-up position. After 3 days of antiorthostatic hypokinesia, on the whole, both groups demonstrated a significant increase in FETNT and a perceptible (although within a normal range) decline in basic spirometry indexes, as compared to the background data. The individual dynamics analysis revealed a more expressed prolongation in the FETNT response to antiorthostatic hypokinesia than to orthostatic hypokinesia. The most prevalent response to the transfer from the head-down tilt to the head-up bed rest was shortening of FETNT. Thus, FETNT analysis demonstrated a possibility of individual evaluation of human pulmonary ventilation dynamics during HDBR and HUBR in simulated microgravity and lunar gravity. The FETNT prolongation in response to simulated microgravity may be explained by an increased aerodynamic resistance of the airways.

Keywords:

Microgravity, antiorthostatic hypokinesia (head-down bed rest), lunar gravity, orthostatic hypokinesia (head-up bed rest), pulmonary ventilation function, forced expiration, tracheal noise, time, individual dynamics.

Blood pressure variability as an informative parameter for assessment of physiological effects of hypogravity on the cardiovascular system.

Year: 2016 (March) Number: №1 Pages: 50-63

Heading: Biomedical research in the interests of deep space exploration.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: A.B. Cherepov, E.N. Yakovenko, D.A. Pozdeeva, M.A. Lebedeva, A.N. Kotov, M.V. Baranov.

Organization: Research Institute for Space Medicine Federal Research Clinical Center of Specialized Types of Medical Care and Medical Technologies, Federal Biomedical Agency of Russia, Moscow; Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology, Moscow, Russia.

Annotation:

We studied changes in the cardiovascular system (CVS) caused by simulated hypogravity (7-and 21-day ortho- and antiorthostatic hypokinesia (bedrest) at different angles). The aim of the experiment was selection of informative CVS parameters most sensitive to the simulated conditions. We used spiroartheriocardiorythmograph (SACR, Intox, Russia) that can simultaneously and continuously record respiration, electrocardiogram, and blood pressure. The instrument records more than 26 physiological parameters of CVS. ECG parameters (R-R, P, QRS ets.), systolic and diastolic pressure in each cardiocycle, and breathing volumes and their variability were measured and analized using the original software. To stimulate mechanisms of CVS regulation, we used functional tests with increased respiratory «dead space» and controlled respiration at a frequency of 0.1 Hz.

It was found that BP variability indexes in functional tests were most sensitive to simulated hypogravity: significant differences in groups with varying degrees of orthostatic hypokinesia (+ 9.6° and + 15°) were observed starting from the first week of the experiment. By day 21, the most pronounced changes in the total spectral power of diastolic BP variability were noted in the group exposed to constant antiorthostasis. This parameter significantly surpassed the corresponding value in the groups with milder conditions. A considerable increase in the low-frequency component of diastolic BP variability was detected both in groups exposed to severe antiorthostasis and orthostasis. Under conditions of hypogravity, additional mechanisms of CVS regulation are activated, which has an impact on variability of peripheral BP, and especially diastolic BP. Our data shows that diastolic BP variability clearly depends on the degree and duration of hypogravity.

Keywords:

Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, simulated hypogravity, bed rest, heart rate variability, blood pressure variability.

The role of hypoxia in reducing orthostatic disorders after exposure to simulated microgravity conditions.

Year: 2016 (March) Number: №1 Pages: 64-71

Heading: Biomedical research in the interests of deep space exploration.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: Zh.A. Donina.

Organization: Pavlov Institute of Physiology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg.

Annotation:

We studied the effect of intermittent normobaric hypoxic training (IHT) on orthostatic reactions of the cardiovascular system of anesthetized rabbits after head-down tilt position. It was found that hypoxic training reduces the intensity of orthostatic disorders of circulatory homeostasis as the contribution of the vascular component in compensatory response is greater than that of the cardiac one. The obtained results suggest that the IHT increases venous return and cardiac filling pressure, reduces the degree of arterial hypotension during orthostatic test and can be used as a method of restoring postural stability.

Keywords:

Intermittent hypoxia, head-down tilt, cardiorespiratory orthostatic responses.

Preparation of a man for a long-time space flight in simulated extreme situations.

Year: 2016 (March) Number: №1 Pages: 74-78

Heading: Biomedical research in the interests of deep space exploration.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: I.N. Solopov.

Organization: FGBOU VO «Volgograd State Academy of physical education», Volgograd.

Annotation:

The article analyses the issues of increasing the effectiveness of astronauts’ special training related to major extreme factors of a prolonged space flight. It is noted that this can be achieved by expanding relevant tools and techniques. In particular, the study substantiates the expediency of using targeted exposure of the body, both of as a whole, or its individual physiological systems, to extreme conditions, as being the most convenient and effective method. The article also identifies main problem areas of integrating various means of targeted exposures into the process of astronauts’ training.

Keywords:

A long-time space flight, adaptation, means of targeted exposure of the body to risk factors.

Comparative analysis of the results of heat shock protein 70 crystallization in earth-based conditions and in microgravity at the International Space Station.

Year: 2016 (March) Number: №1 Pages: 79-90

Heading: Biomedical research in the interests of deep space exploration.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: O.V. Zlobina, A.N. Yudenko, I.E. Eliseev, A.M. Ischenko, A.V. Zhahov, N.P. Gorbunov, A.S. Simbirtsev.

Organization: FGUP «State Research Institute of Highly Pure Biopreparations» FMBA of Russia, St.Petersburg; St Petersburg Academic University of the Russian Academy of Sciences , Saint-Petersburg.

Annotation:

The study was aimed to develop the regimes and conditions of crystallization of heat shock protein 70kDa (HSP70) and of its nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) in ground-based conditions and to define the possibility of obtaining single protein crystals in microgravity at the International Space Station (ISS). We used recombinant HSP70, which is positioned as the main component of the preparation intended for treatment of brain tumors, melanoma and some other types of cancer. To carry out the crystallization experiments, we produced preparations of HSP70 in a form of a full-size molecule and of the N-terminal fragment, which forms functionally important nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) of this protein. The protein quality and high purity, important for crystallization, were confirmed by analysis of their physical, chemical and functional properties. The conditions of HSP70 and NBD crystallization by the method of vapor diffusion were chosen. The protein crystals were produced in plates in earth-based conditions. The regimes and conditions for growing protein crystals in capillaries in earth-based conditions were developed to obtain the protein crystals at the ISS. Comparative studies on crystallization of HSP70 and NBD molecules in capillaries were performed in earth-based conditions and in microgravity at the ISS. The crystals obtained were studied by X-ray analysis and the protein crystal tertiary structure was solved.

Keywords:

Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), nucleotidebinding domain (NBD), chaperone, secondary and tertiary structure of proteins, crystallization of proteins, vapor diffusion method (hanging drop), crystallization in the capillaries, X-ray analysis.

Peculiarities of surgical diseases in a simulated microgravity.

Year: 2016 (March) Number: №1 Pages: 91-99

Heading: Biomedical research in the interests of deep space exploration.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: D.A. Astahov, D.N. Panchenkov, R.V. Liskevich, M.V. Baranov.

Organization: The State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education «A.I. Evdokimov Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry» Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Moscow; Research Institute for Space Medicine Federal Research Clinical Center of Specialized Types of Medical Care and Medical Technologies, Federal Biomedical Agency of Russia, MoscowFederation, Moscow.

Annotation:

The aim of the experimental research was to compare the course of acute surgical pathology of abdominal cavity and retroperitoneal space in normal conditions and in simulated microgravity. The study was performed on male Wistar rats and outbred rats. Acute pancreatitis and acute peritonitis were taken as models of surgical pathology. We compared biochemical values and the results of morphological study of pancreatic and liver specimen in the control and experimental rat groups and under the conditions of simulated microgravity registered aggravation of pathological processes in hepatopancreatobiliary area. The most likely mechanism of such processes is associated with the redistribution of body fluids in the cranial direction with the emergence of stagnation in the abdominal cavity and retroperitoneal space, as well as changes in the enzymatic activity of the pancreas.

Keywords:

Pancreatitis, peritonitis, zero gravity, microgravity, experimental research.

Metabolic shifts and morphological changes in rats’ eye during microgravity simulation.

Year: 2016 (March) Number: №1 Pages: 100-107

Heading: Biomedical research in the interests of deep space exploration.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: M.V. Vyalkina, A.A. Fedorov, E.N. Eskina, Yu.S. Medvedeva, E.N. Arkhipova, M.A. Lebedeva, N.N. Khlebnikova, M.V. Baranov, M.Yu. Karganov.

Organization: Research Institute for Space Medicine Federal Research Clinical Center of Specialized Types of Medical Care and Medical Technologies, Federal Biomedical Agency of Russia, Moscow; Research Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology, Moscow, Russia; Research Institute of Eye Diseases, Moscow, Russia; Ophthalmological Department of Federal Medical-Biology Agency of Russia, Moscow, Russia.

Annotation:

TMicrogravity simulation in rats resulted in changes in eye lavage content. Molecular subfraction analysis, using laser correlation spectroscopy, revealed substantial differences in the pattern of particle size distributions: 1.9–2.56; 4.64–6.25; 91.3; 165–300, and 400–734 nm. Microgravity modeling induced a series of interrelated processes in the retina of experimental rats which was manifested in a decrease of overall and uneven layer-by-layer thickness of the retina, mild edema and, consequently, a decreased relative density of neurons. In the inner nuclear layer, the cell density decreased chiefly due to the amacrine and bipolar cells. These changes could be explained by relative circulatory ischemia of the retinal layers, which are dependent on the retinal vessel circulation system.

Keywords:

Amacrine Cells, Bipolar Cells, Laser Correlation Spectroscopy, Microgravity Simulation, Muller Cells, Retinal Vessels.

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