Medicine of Extreme Situations
Scientific and Practical reviewed Journal
of FMBA of Russia

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№1, 2017 (March)

Voluntary unpaid blood and blood components donation in Russian Federation.

Year: 2017 (March) Number: №1 Pages: 8-13

Heading: Medical sciences.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: V.V. Uyba, O.V. Eihler, A.V. Chechetkin, V.V. Danilchenko.

Organization:

Federal Medical Biological Agency, Moscow;
FSBI «Russian research institute of hematology and transfusiology of Federal Medical Biological Agency», St.-Petersburg.

Annotation:

The aim of this work was to study the dynamics of indicators of unpaid blood and blood components donation to the blood banks at the Russian Federation in 2007–2015. The review of the statistical observation indicators at the blood banks activities in the Russian Federation for the period from 2007 to 2015. The number of voluntary donors of blood and plasma, the number of donations and volume of the blood donated by the volunteer donors and the parameters of an unpaid blood donor were analyzed. It is established, that over the period 2007–2015 the percentage of voluntary donors increased by 7.9%, the percentage of blood donations and plasma from volunteer donors – 8.9 and 15.2%, respectively, the percentage of the blood obtained from volunteer donors – 12.0%, and the average volume of single blood donation – 11.2%, the average number of blood donation from single donor per year – 16.8%. The results show, that over the period 2007–2015 there has been a positive development in voluntary donation of blood and its components in the Russian Federation. In some regions, there is a significant variability in the values of indicators of unpaid donation of blood and plasma.

Keywords:

Blood donor, voluntary unpaid donation, blood components, blood service.

Multi-wall carbon nanotubes inhalation toxicity In rats assessed in acute and chronic experiments.

Year: 2017 (March) Number: №1 Pages: 14-32

Heading: Medical sciences.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: A.V. Vorobyev, V.I. Sigaev, A.D. Tolchinsky, S.N. Uspenskaya, Yu.V. Ivanova, E.V. Zvyagina, S.P. Rybalkin, L.V. Mikhina, N.M. Onatcky, A.A. Mazanova, N.R. Dyadishchev.

Organization:

SFBES «Research Centre of Toxicology and Hygienic Regulation of Biopreparations» FMBA, Serpukhov, Moscow region.

Annotation:

The acute inhalation toxicity of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) Taunit-m was studied in rats within a single inhalation procedure that lasted for 4 hours. Aerosol concentration of MUNT Taunit-m, studied in the experiment varied: 111, 39, 14, and 6 mg/m3. The value CL50 exceeds the maximum concentration of MUNT Taunit-m-111 mg/m3 in the experiment. The concentration of 39 mg/m3 is justified as a threshold for acute action.

Were observed significant changes in the bronchoalveolar fluid in the groups of experimental animals, changed in macrophages and alkaline phosphatase activity in comparison with the control groups.

Within the study rats were inhaling the MUNT Taunit-m aerosol for 4 hours a way, 5 days a week for 4 months. Aerosol MUNT Taunit-m was used in concentration: 25, 5 and 1 mg/m3. In 4 months rats have developed antrakosis fibrosis (variegated antrakos). The fibroitic changes occurred only in a few animals and were expressed quite poorly.

Aerosol concentration MUNT Taunit-m 25 mg/m3 was estimated as effective (12 toxicometric indicators differ from the controls), the concentration of 5 mg/m3 is justified as a threshold for causing a chronic effect (7 toxicometric indicators differ from the control). The concentration of 1 mg/m3 studied in the experiment was proposed to be considered as inactive, since the aerosol changes found to be reliable at this concentration are of a constant nature and differ significantly from the control values. To refine this indicator, a study with lower concentrations of the Taunit-M MWNT aerosol is likely to be required.

The immunotoxic and sensitizing effect of the Taunit-M MWNT aerosol was studied in the group of rats withdrawn from the experiment after 1 month of inhalation procedures for 5 days a week for 4 hours a day. Immunotoxic and sensitizing effect of MUNT Taunit-M is not established.

Keywords:

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes, rats, inhalation toxicity, acute toxicity parameters, chronic toxicity parameters, immunotoxicity action, sensitive action.

Ultrasonography in meninges damage detection and monitoring in children suffering from neuroinfections (meningitis, meningoencephalitis).

Year: 2017 (March) Number: №1 Pages: 33-40

Heading: Medical sciences.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: Yu.P. Vasilieva, N.V. Skripchenko, A.A. Vilnitz.

Organization:

Federal State Budgetary Institution Pediatric Research and Clinical Center for Infectious Diseases Under the Federal Medical Biological Agency, Saint-Petersburg.

Annotation:

Improving methods of noninvasive detection for the structural changes in cases of neuroinfections in children, is an important issue. This article reviews results of scientific studies that apply of meninges ultrasonography visualization in cases of purulent bacterial meningitis (meningoencephalitis) in children. We observed 113 patients aged 1 month to 24 months (9.1±0.57 m.), admitted to the ICU. In the course of the study we described ultrasound images typical for the healthy meningea and in case of purulent bacterial meningitis (meningoencephalitis) in children. We worked out the algorithm of ultrasonic monitoring for patients with purulent bacterial meningitis (meningoencephalitis). Ultrasound markers of complicated course of meningitis and estimated time of recovery ware established. Conclusion: Ultrasound monitoring of brain infections in children under 2 years of age, is an effective technique for early detection of complications, assessment of the disease severity and for the monitoring the intrathecal recovery processes.

Keywords:

UIltrasound, children, meningitis, encephalitis, monitoring, complications.

The medical and biological risks associated with operations in deep space missions.

Year: 2017 (March) Number: №1 Pages: 43-64

Heading: Occupational safety and security.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: V.V. Uyba, I.B. Ushakov, A.O. Sapetsky.

Organization:

Federal Medical-Biological Agency, Moscow; FGBU SSC FMBC them. A.I.Burnazyan FMBA of Russia, Moscow; RF SRC – Institute of Biomedical Problems RAS, Moscow; The Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow region, Dubna.

Annotation:

The article describes recent understanding of the risks and hazards associated with the implementation of manned flights in deep space missions. The paper presents an overview of the risks: changes in the mental status and impaired health of the crew members; the danger of radiation injury - result of cosmic radiation; risks associated with the provision of medical care to injured members of the crew or the ones affected by the radiation; risks associated with the human error in the outer space and the failure of the life support systems; risks associated with the extravehicular activity and incorrectly calculated physical exercise needed to meet the daily requirement. Mainly, the review was prepared according to the contemporary works of foreign authors, less known Russian researchers.

Keywords:

Deep space missions, risks of long-distance space flight, risk mitigation.

Legal framework Preparation of the Medical and Sanitary Services Provided to the Crew Personnel at Sea and River Crafts: the Analysis of Problems, Suggestions and Opportunities.

Year: 2017 (March) Number: №1 Pages: 65-77

Heading: Occupational safety and security.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: O.K. Bumay, A.V. Ivanchenko, A.A. Abakumov, R.V. Konstantinov, A.E. Sosukin, A.B. Verveda.

Organization:

Federal State Unitary Enterprise «Research Institute of Industrial and Marine Medicine Federal Medical Biological Agency (FSUE RI IMM), St. Petersburg; Federal Medical Biological Agency (FMBA of Russia), Moscow.

Annotation:

The article presents an analysis of the existing problems in health care services provided to the crew personnel, servicing at the sea and river crafts. The advantages of the FMBA authorization, as a competent authority of the Russian Federation, in health protection and medical care provided to the personnel working at sea and river crafts are proved.

Keywords:

Medical and sanitary services, crew personnel, sea and river crafts, FMBA.

Prospects for the Use of Artificial Hibernation in the Medicine of Extreme Situations.

Year: 2017 (March) Number: №1 Pages: 78-88

Heading: Occupational safety and security.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: A.S. Samoylov, I.B. Ushakov, A.O. Sapetsky, N.V. Sapetsky, N.N. Timofeev.

Organization:

FSBU SSC Federal Medical Biophysical Center named by A.I. Burnazyan FMBA of Russia, Moscow; RFSRC – Institute of Biomedical Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow; Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow region, Dubna.

Annotation:

This method is based on preventive protection of the body from exposure to extreme environmental factors by controlled pharmacological effect on the neuro-humoral regulation mechanisms of sympathetic-adrenal system with its subsequent functional reorganization. As a result of the impact of antihypertensive drugs according to our methodology, the metabolism level of the organism is reduced to 50% from normal with no significant impairment of higher nervous system function. As shown by previous studies, the preventive protection of an organism through the creation of hibernation states of varying length and depth, accompanied by a significant increase in resistance to the effects of gamma radiation, deep levels of hypothermia, acute and chronic hypoxia, to dangerous infections, immunotoxic lesions and so on. It is also important that obtaining hibernation states in mammals that differ in the length and depth can be achieved in a short period of time without using any complicated apparatus and carried out in any environment.

Keywords:

Experimental medicine, artificial hibernation, emergencies, sanitary-epidemiological consequences of emergencies, medicine of emergency situations, healthcare in aerospace activities.

Development of technical means for air quality control at the working area in high-tech industries.

Year: 2017 (March) Number: №1 Pages: 89-96

Heading: Occupational safety and security.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: A.S. Samoylov, I.B. Ushakov, A.O. Sapetsky, N.V. Sapetsky, N.N. Timofeev.

Organization:

Federal State Unitary Enterprise «Scientific Research Instituta of Biological Engineering», Federal Medical Biological Agency; JSC «Krasnogorsky Zavod» (KMZ «Zenit»); Federal State Budgetary Institution «48 Central Scientific Research Institute» of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation.

Annotation:

Modern high-tech production facilities specify high requirements to the air quality in the the production cycle. These requirements first and foremost address such industries as: biotechnological, chemical and pharmaceutical. The content of nanoparticles in the air of working area requires the deployment of appropriate analytical equipment (analyzers of dustiness, particle counters, etc.). Analysis of the particle size distribution, physico-chemical and biological properties of nanoparticles is particularly difficult for particles with diameter less than 0.1 μm, as determined by the properties, can vary significantly in a rather narrow range of particle sizes. Therefore, it is necessary to develop special methods that allow adequately assess their properties. Thus, it is important to create technical means for control of nanoscale aerosols containing a biological component, including the natural microflora, allergens, etc.

Keywords:

Nanoparticles, nanomaterials, health and hygiene parameters, air in the working area, aerosols, high-tech production.

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