Medicine of Extreme Situations
Scientific and Practical reviewed Journal
of FMBA of Russia

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№3, 2013 (September)

Aspects of sanitary and epidemiological well-being of the population in hazardous chemical facilities elimination.

Year: 2013 (September) Number: №3 Pages: 6-13

Heading: Organization and improvement of medical care and the state sanitary and epidemiological supervision. Prevention and liquidation of consequences of emergency situations.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: Filatov B.N., Britanov N.G., Klauchek V.V., Krilova N.V., Dobroshenko L.A.

Organization: Federal State Unitary Enterprise «Research Institute for Hygiene, Toxicology and Occupational Pathology» at Federal Medical and Biological Agency.

Annotation: 

Based on the analysis of the available regulatory and procedural guidelines and information materials, were substantiated sanitary-epidemiological measures and were developed methodical guidelines to provide environment, health and occupational safety, in facility retooling or elimination of hazardous chemical production sites.

Keywords: 

Production sits for hazardous chemicals, elimination, facility retooling, zoning in premises, sanitary and epidemiological surveillance, general public, environmental and personnel safety, sanitary and chemical control,methodical guidelines.

Non cancer disease in professional exposed to occupational radiation.

Year: 2013 (September) Number: №3 Pages: 14-21

Heading: Organization and improvement of medical care and the state sanitary and epidemiological supervision. Prevention and liquidation of consequences of emergency situations.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: Tukov A.R., Gneusheva G.I., Suvorova Yu.V., Dikarev V.A.

Organization: Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency.

Annotation:

The purpose - to analyze the incidents of non-cancer disease, disability incidence in persons exposed to occupational radiation.

Materials and methods. Data used from medical reports on employees that assemble nuclear weapons F Nr. 01-C for the period 1992-2011 inclusive. We analyzed the morbidity dynamics and prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, digestive system diseases and chronic bronchitis among the personnel worked in contact with the source of ionizing radiation (37 541 person-years).

Results. Morbidity and disease prevalence analysis of the personnel exposed to radiation showed a high incidence of hypertension, which raised during the observation period in 17, and the prevalence raised is 2.3 times. Incidence and prevalence of coronary artery disease and identified Iischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular diseases remained low. Despite the improvement in gastric ulcers morbidity, the prevalence of gastric ulcers among the personnel has increased in 1.3 times over the years of observation.

Keywords: 

Workers with occupational exposure to radiation, pathology of the blood circulation organs and digestive system, chronic bronchitis, disability.

ELSKAN system diagnostic possibilities in several-day-long focused ecg episodes registration.

Year: 2013 (September) Number: №3 Pages: 22-29

Heading: Organization and improvement of medical care and the state sanitary and epidemiological supervision. Prevention and liquidation of consequences of emergency situations.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: Trivozhenko A.B., Vorobyov V.A., Kostrikin A.A.

Organization: FGHI Clinical hospital 81 FMBA Russia.

Annotation: 

To increase the availability and profitability, and decrease the cost of the Holter moni-toring, it is suggested to use an ELSKAN-system - a unique registration method of ECG episodes, that targets pathological changes.

The purpose - to evaluate the quality of the equipment and to define possibilities of occasional several-day-long ECG registration of electrocardiographic events in detection of myocardial ischemia, cardiac arrhythmias and sinus node automaticity.

Material and methods. Two groups of patients, in total - 42 people (30 men and 12 women), aged 30 to 72 years, suspected with coronary artery disease, arrhythmias and disturbance in sinus node automaticity. The referential diagnostics of rhythm ab-normalities was performed via transesophageal electrophysiology study, ischemia veri-fication, via transesophageal stress- echocardiography.

Results. ECG episodes had been registered for 2 to 5,5 days (on average 3,5±1,5). Quality of registered charts was quite reliable, “tremulous” and “network” artifacts were present in 8 cases and were reported as non-significant. The asystolic periods lasting for more than 2000 mс had been registered in 2 episodes. The short-term paroxysm of atrial fibrillation with HR 80-90 per minute occurred in 1 female patient, and supra ventricular tachycardia with HR 150 per minute occurred in 1 male patient. Ischemic changes as an «encoded» ST depression were observed in 2 cases and- NSSTTA was found in 2 cases. The method proved to be reliable in identification of sick sinus syndrome (р=0,0001; x2=14,9; kappa=1,0) and supra ventricular tachycardia (р=0,01; x2=6,5; kappa=1,0). ROC validity -analysis in ischemia detection has shown sensitivity at level of 60%, specificity - 89%, diagnostic accuracy - 75%. Decoding and interpretation of the data took 12 to 30 minutes (on the average - 18±4), based on the number of cap-tured episodes, as well as the complexity of the ECG itself.

Conclusion: The several-day-long focused ECG episodes registration by the ELSKAN system is a reasonable alternative to Holter monitoring system, adapted for the needs of practical cardiology.

Keywords: 

Ecg monitoring, cad, arrhythmias, stress - echocardiography, transesophageal electrophysiology examination.

Nadroparin calcium (Fraksiparina) in venous thromboembolic events preventions in surgical patients.

Year: 2013 (September) Number: №3 Pages: 30-35

Heading: Organization and improvement of medical care and the state sanitary and epidemiological supervision. Prevention and liquidation of consequences of emergency situations.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: Istomin N.P., Ivanov U.V., Ivanov V.V.

Organization: FGHI Clinical Hospital №119 FMBA, FGBEI Continuing Professional Education FMBA, FSCC FMBA.

Annotation: 

We conducted an analysis of our own experience in Fraksiparin application for intra operational prevention of venous thromboembolic events in general surgery patients. We compared the mortality rate, frequency of venous thrombosis, thromboembolic and hemorrhagic events in the control group and the group of patients who received peri-operative fraxiparine, along with an alternating pneumocompression of lower limbs and elastic compression. The results showed that the comprehensive prevention of venous thromboembolism in general surgery helps to reduce the rate of deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism and mortality, at the same time maintaining the low rate of hemor-rhagic complications.

Keywords: 

Fraxiparine, pulmonary embolism, thrombosis, haemostasis.

Assessment and efficiency of individual biomedical and psychophysiological technologies in sports of the highest achievements Results of Scientific-Research Works in the Field of Studies of Effects of Especially Hazardous and Harmful Industrial Factors on Human Organism.

Year: 2013 (September) Number: №3 Pages: 36-45

Heading: Organization and improvement of medical care and the state sanitary and epidemiological supervision. Prevention and liquidation of consequences of emergency situations.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: Ostapishin V.D., Lubyako A.A., Bashlykov D.V., Bashlykova A.N., Borisevich Ch.S, Volkov D.N., Mednikov S.V., Svetlichnaya S.V., Tyambina A.S.

Organization: Federal State Budgetary Institution «Scientific Research Center of Balneology and Rehabilitation of FMBA.

Annotation: 

The review article summarizes experience of 853 follow-ups and practical application of a technology that restores reserve capacity of professional athletes, via introduction of a physiologically active substances (animal origin) in a very-low-dose and achieving fast recovery of body function and target tissues. The article shows the potential of screening diagnostics, the range of pathological conditions and occupational diseases caused to athletes by different types of sport activities. The article suggests the strategy concept for athletic training sessions and sport competitions.

Keywords: 

Intensive rehabilitation, reserve capacity of the human body, functional capacity of the human body, psycho-physiological trainings.

Extended exposure and radiogenic risks assessment in acute exposure risk models.

Year: 2013 (September) Number: №3 Pages: 46-56

Heading: The results of research works in the field of studying the influence on the humans especially dangerous and harmful production factors.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: Gubin A.T.

Organization: Federal State Unitary Enterprise Research and Technical Center of Radiation-Chemical Safety and Hygiene, Moscow.

Annotation: 

The proposed methodology is based on the acute irradiation risk models and is applicable for radiogenic risks estimation in cases of chronic irradiation exposure. This methodology takes into account that following doses exposure effects previously already effected organism. Our model considers these building up dosages and age and is based on modified correlation. Using existing relative risk model, suggested by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICPR) in Publication 103 for men, it was shown, that commonly used methods of radiogenic risks estimation for chronic exposures based on summation of different doses contributions to the risks with assumption of their independence may lead to significant underestimation of risks. It was shown the possibility of situations, where chronic exposure may be more effective than acute one.

Purpose - using existing relative risk estimation models, designed for acute irradiation, to develop a radiogenic risk assessment methodology for chronic irradiation or fractionated irradiation exposure.

Materials and methods. The formal mathematical methods, including the method of successive approximations, were used for validation of the methodology. Assessments for the possible contribution of the background mortality modification effect in the radiogenic risk for extended exposure were obtained on the basis of the relative risk model for men taken from the ICRP Publication 103.

Results. It was demonstrated that commonly used methods of estimating radiogenic risks for extended exposures based on summation of different doses contributs to the risks with assumption of their independence and at dose rates typical for personnel and population exposed in emergency situations, may lead to significant underestimation of risks. The possibility of situations was shown, where chronic exposure may be more effective than acute one.

Conclusions. Background mortality modification effect by previous exposure doses may cause unexpectedly high estimated cancer risks systematically obtained in epidemiological studies on population groups exposed to technogenic irradiation. In the light of the obtained results, introduction of efficiency factor for both dose and dose rate in the modern radiation protection system, as well as assignment the value of 2 for this coefficient require further consideration.

Keywords: 

Ionizing radiation, chronic exposure, risk assessment, radiogenic risks, risk models.

Nitroglycerin toxic properties: simulating single time exposure to nitroglycerin in contact of unprotected skin with the surface of technological equipment.

Year: 2013 (September) Number: №3 Pages: 57-61

Heading: The results of research works in the field of studying the influence on the humans especially dangerous and harmful production factors.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: Zhukov V.E., Skalich I.P., Frolova I.G.

Organization: Federal State Unitary Enterprise «Research Institute for Hygiene, Toxicology and Occupational Pathology» at Federal Medical and Biological Agency.

Annotation: 

The research purpose is to study nitroglycerin toxic properties upon modeling of its single exposure from contaminated surfaces of technological equipment. The modeling has been performed by contact of contaminated metal plates with unprotected skin of white outbred rats. By testing the set of indicators has been used that reflect the function of various organs and systems. As the study result, the average effective dose (ED50) has been determined on the base of methemoglobin level changing in blood. Based on the “dose -effect” dependence, the threshold of single action (Limacintegr) has been defined. It has been shown that a single application of nitroglycerin causes a change of energy balance.

Keywords: 

Nitroglycerin, simulated exposure conditions, threshold of single time contact.

Perfecting the technologies of red blood banking in blood supply service in Russian Federation.

Year: 2013 (September) Number: №3 Pages: 63-69

Heading: The results of research works in the field of studying the influence on the humans especially dangerous and harmful production factors.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: Chechetkin A.V., Makeev A.B., Soldatenkov V.E., Grigoryan M.S.

Organization: FSBI «Russian research institute of hematology and transfusiology of Federal medico-biological agency».

Annotation: 

The aim of this study was to investigate the situation and trends in blood and blood components harvesting in Russia and justify the selected improvement methods and trends for blood harvesting in blood service institutions.

Materials and methods. We analyzed statistical reports for 2000-2010, made on the volume and structure of blood and blood components donations in blood service institutions in Russia.

Results. It is established, that during 2000-2010 the volume of blood donations in the organizations of blood service in Russia has increased by 18%. The volume of blood harvested from unpaid donors increased from 72.4 to 81.5%. In 2000-2010 the structure of red blood cells procurement in blood service in Russia significantly changed. The share of red cells in additive solution increased in 11 times (from 2,4 up to 26,4%), the share of packed red blood cells depleted by leukocytes and platelets, in structure of blood components donations has grown in 1,6 times. In Russia, in the total share of erythrocyte components harvested in medical institutions, the filtered red blood cells took up to 32%.

Conclusion. Due to the new technologies of blood and blood components harvesting and banking, introduced into blood service institutions in Russia in 2000-2010, the volumes of harvested blood, red cells and leucocyte-depleted red cells significantly increased. Perspective areas of improvement in red blood cells procurement in Russia are: red blood cell cryopreservation and automatic fractionation of the harvested blood and stronger use of methods apheresis at donors.

Keywords:

Blood supply service, donated blood, blood components, red blood cells, cryopreserved red cells.

Intensity of lipid peroxidationin in nucleated blood cells treated with cryoprotectants and assessed by chemiluminescence method.

Year: 2013 (September) Number: №3 Pages: 70-73

Heading: The results of research works in the field of studying the influence on the humans especially dangerous and harmful production factors.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: Khudyakov A.N., Zaitseva O.O., Polejaeva T.V., Laptev D.S., Kostyaev A.A.

Organization: Physiology institute at the scientific center affiliated to the Ural branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Kirov Research Institute of Hematology and Blood Transfusion.

Annotation: 

Chemiluminescence method was used to investigate the effects of different cryoprotectives and adjuvants on lipid peroxidation (LPO) and antioxidant activity (AOA) in leukocytes. It was shown that in a cell, both indexes LPO and AOA are changed being influenced by the substance. Cryoprotectant solutions do not activate LPO and AOA in native leukocytes.

Keywords: 

Leukocytes, cryoprotectants, cryopre-servatives, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant activity.

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