Medicine of Extreme Situations
Scientific and Practical reviewed Journal
of FMBA of Russia

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№3, 2016 (September)

Role of immunogenetics in addressing fundamental and applied tasks of personalized medicine.

Year: 2016 (September) Number: №3 Pages: 9-24

Heading: Medical sciences.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: R.M. Khaitov, L.P. Alexeev, I.A. Kofiadi.

Organization: FSBI «NRC Institute of immunology» FMBA of Russia, Moscow.

Annotation:

The review presents data on the Human Immune System Genes contribution in various areas of fundamental and applied personalized medicine. Human immune system genes control resistance and sensitivity to negative environmental factors, autoimmune challenges, various adverse events occurred in organ transplantation procedures and within the decease treatments. The original data on human genes responsible for personal sensitivity to chronic irradiation are also discussed. The clinical effects caused by the mentioned factors were also considered. It became possible to carry this analysis, mostly due to the availability of The Human Genome Mapping which was one of the most significant discoveries at the turn of XX–XXI centuries.

Keywords:

Immunogenetics prognosis of diseases, transplantation, reproductive medicine, human ecology, personalized medicine.

Innate immunity: physiological role in healthy and irradiated subjects (publication review).

Year: 2016 (September) Number: №3 Pages: 25-40

Heading: Medical sciences.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: V.N. Maltsev, A.A. Ivanov.

Organization: FSBI, State Research Center — «Federal Medical Biophysical Center named by A.I. Burnazyan» at FMBA, Moscow.

Annotation:

The present analytical review of foreign and domestics publications on the status of innate (natural) immunity in healthy and irradiated subjects. It shows, that destruction of natural immunity plays an important role in pathogenic mechanisms of acute radiation sickness development. That will help to get a broader picture using immunity tests for diagnostic and prognosis of radiation injury, as well as the study of treatment strategies.

Keywords:

Ionizing radiation, innate immunity, epithelial barriers, complement, normal antibody, muramidase, interferon, transferrin, beta- lysogen, TR-cells, phagocytosis.

Comparative analysis of birth rate dynamic in the city of vast nuclear industry — Ozyorsk and in all Russian Federation.

Year: 2016 (September) Number: №3 Pages: 41-51

Heading: Medical sciences.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: V.I. Telnov, F.D. Tretyakov.

Organization: FSUE Southern Urals Biophysics Institute of the FMBA of Russia, Ozyorsk.

Annotation:

The result of comparative analysis of birth rates’ dynamics in Ozyorsk and Russia showed that in situation of initially higher birth rates in Ozyorsk and increased birth rate slowdown in 2000–2002 this process appeared to be much more evident in Ozyorsk than in Russia on the whole. The increase of birth rate, which commenced in the country in the recent years, has both general trend and some peculiarities in the speed of fertile rate dynamics in Ozersk.Dynamics of age-specific birth rate coefficient in Ozyorsk and Russia in the groups of females aged 15–24 is characterized as essentially decreasing starting from the year 1990 and increasing in elder age groups starting from 2000. At the same time the cumulative birth rate coefficients in conventional and real generations are diametrically opposite, i.e. increasing and decreasing respectively. Model evaluation of the dynamics of cumulative birth rate coefficients in conventional and real female generations showed that it is possible to discuss the longterm prognosis of birth rates only in case of one-directional dynamics of both rates. Currently the increase of cumulative birth rate coefficients in conditional female generations is mostly caused by the birth of second child and the following ones. Decrease of female population (in approximately 1.5 times) born in the 90-ies of the last century, that are currently coming into childbearing age, could be one of the essential factors of decreasing birth rates in Russia in the nearest future.

Keywords:

Birth rates, birth rate coefficient, real and conventional female generations, dynamics, prognosis.

Morphological features of dehydrated blood plasma and blood serum collected from active donors.

Year: 2016 (September) Number: №3 Pages: 52-56

Heading: Medical sciences.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: А.А. Kostyaev, А.К. Martusevich, L.K. Kovalyova, A.A. Andreev, E.V. Luchnikova.

Organization: FSBIS «Kirov Research Institute of Haematology and Blood Transfusion of the Federal Medical and Biological Agency oj Russia», Kirov; FSBI «Privolzhsky Federal Research Medical Centre», Nizhny Novgorod; Kirov State Medical Academy, Kirov.

Annotation:

The aim of this paper is study crystalloscopic peculiarities of blood plasma and serum in healthy people. We tested the specimens from 26 healthy subjects (21–45 years old), all of them are active donors of blood components. Preliminary examination of the subjects was to exclude chronic and acute diseases. We have collected a plasma and serum from each blood specimen. After that 4 mcl of blood plasma and serum were placed on clear preparation glass and was dehydrated in an electric oven at 37°C at humidity of 30%. Each experiment was repeated 5 times. All facias of blood serum and plasma were assessed morphologically and morphometrically with the use of number of semiquantitive criteria. Statistical data processing was executed with Statistica 6.0 program. We concluded that crystallogenic properties of the blood serum and plasma are differing clearly, which is associated with variability of its composition. This fact led to reduction of crystallogenic activity of blood serum as compared with plasma, which realizing in decreasing of crystallizability and structure index and transformation of facia marginal zone (modification of the «breaks», differenciation of this zone from others etc.). Such peculiarities determine the selection of the substrate for crystalloscopic study, based on the aim of the planned investigation.

Keywords:

Blood plasma, blood serum, crystallization, biocrystallomics.

Dimetpramide effects on cardiac contractility and conduction, in isolated rat heart.

Year: 2016 (September) Number: №3 Pages: 57-63

Heading: Medical sciences.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: D.S. Laptev, S.G. Petunov, D.V. Bobkov, D.V. Krivorotov, V.A. Kuznetsov, A.S. Radilov, V.R. Rembovskiy.

Organization: FSUE «Research Institute of Hygiene, Occupational Pathology and Human Ecology» FMBA, St. Petersburg.

Annotation:

The research persue an understanding of the effects dimetpramide succinate (DMPs) — new salt form of dimetpramide (an antiemetic drug) has on the function of the isolated rat heart. We have assessed the dose/concentration-effect correlation. It was proven, that in 1×10–4 M concentration, which corresponds with the dosage recommended for the oral administration, DMPs has strong negative chronotropic and dromotropic effect, along with a moderate vasoconstrictor effect. The mechanism of action DMPs has on an isolated heart differs from the central mode of action, only partially causes the dopamine receptors block. The effect DMPs has on the cardiac muscle carried out via the voltage gated K+ -channels.

Keywords:

Isolated heart, dimetpramide, dopamine receptors, ECG.

Clinical case of ectopic atrial tachycardia complicated by paroxysmal form of cardiac arrhythmia (atrial fibrillation), with chronic infection.

Year: 2016 (September) Number: №3 Pages: 64-68

Heading: Medical sciences.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: E.V. Malkina, A.S. Kvetnaya, D.F. Egorov, O.L. Gordeeyev.

Organization: Saint Petersburg State Pediatric Medical University;
SBHI Scientific Research Institute of Children’s Infections, Federal Medical Biological Agency of Russia, Saint Petersburg;
Saint Petersburg State Medical University named after аcademician I.P. Pavlov;
City Clinical Hospital № 31, Saint Petersburg;
Federal Medical Research Center named after V.A. Almazov, Saint Petersburg.

Annotation:

Clinical case and observation of a child with ectopic atrial tachycardia complicated by a paroxysmal form of cardiac arrhythmia (atrial fibrillation), with chronic infection.

The results of laboratory and instrumental tests and the follow-up control, including: ECG, echocardiography, ECG-monitoring in accordance with Holter, transesophageal electrophysiological study of heart, has shown clinical improvement in the course of selected treatment.

Keywords:

Heart rhythm and conduction disorders, children, endomyocardiac biopsy, Chlamydia infection, Streptococcus pyogenes.

The content of heavy metals in soil and groung of natural-anthropogenic complexe and launching area of the cosmodrome «Vostochny».

Year: 2016 (September) Number: №3 Pages: 70-76

Heading: Occupational safety and security.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: I.A. Alekseev, A.V. Alekhnovich, T.A. Meredelina, L.P. Karatsuba, E.A. Shсhiptsova, A.A. Kruglov.

Organization: Blagoveschensk State Pedagogical University, Blagoveschensk; Federal Medical Biophysical Center, Moscow.

Annotation:

The researches have identified the gross content of heavy metals in soils of anthropogenic objects within the launching area of the cosmodrome «Vostochny», objects for determining the general trends and specifics of the impact of human activity on the landscape-geochemical environment in the course of the facility operation. It was determined that the gross content of elements such as copper, zinc, chromium, nickel, cobalt, in the soil of the anthropogenic complexes is consistent with the gross content of these metals in soils in the South part of Amur region, except for zinc. For the given type of soils, the concentration of heavy metals stays within the maximum limit allowed. The preliminary study of the samples showed the gross content of the soil components, that data was applied for environmental and hygiene monitoring of the infrastructure and the main facilities operation at the Cosmodrome. That will suggest development and implementation of measures, prone to reduce anthropogenic impact on the environment and human health.

Keywords:

Cosmodrome «Vostochny», habitat, soils, heavy metals, background content, surface soils.

The dynamics of the correlations between psychophysiological adaptation and psychosomatic disorders in the course of professional staff activity in facilities with harmful and dangerous working conditions.

Year: 2016 (September) Number: №3 Pages: 77-85

Heading: Occupational safety and security.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: V.V. Ivanov, D.D. Fedotov.

Organization: Central Hospital № 91 of the Federal Medical and Biological Agency; Center for Mental Health and Rehabilitation, Clinical Hospital № 85 of the Federal Medical and Biological Agency, Moscow.

Annotation:

Based on materials of long-term research on staff adaptation to the working conditions in nuclear industry, the correlations between psychophysiological parameters and psychosomatic disorders in different periods of employment (at the beginning of working path, during primary adaptation to working conditions and also at the late stages of the career- prior to retirement). We outline a range of psychosomatic disorders, employees suffer from in the course of psychophysiological adaptation. The dynamics of developing psychosomatic pathology using the model of arterial hypertension presents. The necessity of systematic medical and psychological personnel rehabilitation was clearly substantiated.

Keywords:

Psychophysiological adaptation, boundary psychic disorders, psychosomatic pathology, medical and psychological personnel rehabilitation.

Characteristics of lipid metabolism in employees of chemical weapons destruction facility in Kambarka City of the Udmurt Republic.

Year: 2016 (September) Number: №3 Pages: 88-95

Heading: Occupational safety and security.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: B.N. Filatov, T.Ya. Dvorchik, N.G. Britanov, A.S. Frolov, T.A. Charova.

Organization: Federal State Unitary Enterprise «Research Institute of Hygiene, Toxicology and Occupational Pathology» at Federal Medical and Biological Agency, Volgograd.

Annotation:

Lipid metabolism criteria were studied in employees of chemical weapons destruction facility in Kambarka City of the Udmurt Republic. It was shown that deviations in lipid metabolism characteristics in the general group of the personnel, that worked in hazardous conditions wearing insulating personal protective equipment (PPE), are more substantial, than in the comparison group.

Keywords:

Personnel of a chemical weapon destruction facility, indicators and characteristics of lipid metabolism.

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