Medicine of Extreme Situations
Scientific and Practical reviewed Journal
of FMBA of Russia

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№4, 2014 (December)

Air pollution control regulations and methodology in Russia and the USA for chemical accidents.

Year: 2014 (December) Number: №4 Pages: 11-17

Heading: Organization and improvement of medical care and the state sanitary and epidemiological supervision. Prevention and liquidation of consequences of emergency situations.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: V.E. Zhukov, B.N. Filatov, V.V. Klauchek.

Organization: FSUE «RIHTOP» FMBA Russia, Volgograd.

Annotation:

The article substantiates the need to work out Emergency Exposure Limits in Russian Federation and presents the results of the comparative analysis on the Emergency Exposure Limits Procedural Guidelines and maximum permissible level for pollutants and toxins in the USA.

Keywords:

Chemical accident, contamination zone, hygiene regulations, emergency exposure limit, community air, EEL, sarin, soman, VX.

Migration of the Techa River inhabitants, exposed to radiation.

Year: 2014 (December) Number: №4 Pages: 18-26

Heading: Organization and improvement of medical care and the state sanitary and epidemiological supervision. Prevention and liquidation of consequences of emergency situations.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: S.A. Shalaginov, N.V. Startsev, A.V. Akleev.

Organization: Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, FMBA of Russia, Chelyabinsk.

Annotation:

Objective of the Study:
To study the principal demic diffusion patterns of the Techa River population exposed to radiation from 1950 to 2010.

Patients and Methods:
The Techa River radiation exposed population, are people lived from January 1st, 1950 to December 31st, 1960 in oneof the 42 set tlements along the Techa River. The radiation exposed population when relocated, was followed-up in three areas in the Urals region: Chelyabinsk oblast, Kurgan oblast and Sverdlovsk oblast. In order to monitor where and for how long the exposed people were living after the relocation, there were sent requests to the address bureaus and the office of civil registration. This approach made it possible to collect information on the places and periods of residence for exposed persons in the catchment area. The information on persons resident outside the catchment area and their next-of-kin was collected through surveys conducted at the URCRM clinic.

Statistical processing of the results was performed using standard methods and the validation criterion χ2.

Conclusions:
1. The maximum number of the followed-up population exposed on the Techa River reached 25.6 thousand and was fixed as of the end of 1960.

2. The proportion of exposed people who continue living in villages situated on the banks of the Techa River has been steadily decreasing, and in 2010 it reached 12.1% of the total number of living exposed residents.

3. The total number of settlements were the exposed residents had moved amounted to 653.

4. The average number of the migratory events estimated for former residents of the annihilated settlements was higher than that for persons resident in the villages situated on the banks of the Techa River, making up 3.42 and 2.06, p<0.005, respectively.

Keywords:

Population of the Techa river basin, migration, compelled resettlement, in-patient medical care, anandoned territories.

Health care provision to personnel serviced in Chernobyl NPP accident containment and mitigation.

Year: 2014 (December) Number: №4 Pages: 27-30

Heading: Organization and improvement of medical care and the state sanitary and epidemiological supervision. Prevention and liquidation of consequences of emergency situations.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: V.S. Gorbachevskiy, V.N. Kulyga.

Organization: FSBHI (Federal State Budgetary Healthcare Institution) “Central Medical Sanitary Unit №119” FMBA, Moscow.

Annotation:

The article describes the status of Health care provision at the “Central Medical Sanitary Unit №119” to the personnel serviced in Chernobyl NPP accident containment and mitigation. The morbidity rates are higher in this group compared to the overall rates for the adult population. The follow-up criteria were: age -over 60 y.o. (85%) and incidents of irradiation exposure. In order to provide this group of patient with the appropriate medical care, it is necessary to continue the follow-ups, direct patients to the day patient facilities, to the rehabilitation centers, clinical hospital, as well as to the health-resort facilities.

Keywords:

Chernobyl NPP accident containment and mitigation, radiation exposure, health status, morbidity, follow-up care.

Historical overview of chemical disinfectants development used for biosecurity pecaution, commnicable disease control and prevention.

Year: 2014 (December) Number: №4 Pages: 31-34

Heading: Organization and improvement of medical care and the state sanitary and epidemiological supervision. Prevention and liquidation of consequences of emergency situations.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: E.N. Khramov, O.B. Pudova, O.A. Zharkova, D.L. Poklonskiy, V.P. Nikolskaya.

Organization: Federal State Unitary Enterprise «Scientific Research Institute of Biological Engineering» Federal Medical Biological Agency, Moscow.

Annotation:

A retrospective analysis was conducted on the work done in the Chemical Disinfectants Development Laboratory within the Federal State Unitary Enterprise «Scientific Research Institute of Biological Engineering» (FSUE “SRIBE”).

The author analyzes the fields of focus and various classes of chemical compounds in researched the Chemical Disinfectants Development Laboratory. Over the years of operation, in the Lab there were synthesized highly effective disinfectants – peroxosolvates based on environmentally safe hydrogen peroxide derivatives.

For years, in the Chemical Disinfectants Development Laboratory expert chemists, microbiologists, engineers and mechanics have developed and put into practice chemicals for decontamination (disinfection and decontamination), with an all-purpose application with respect to the biological and chemical contaminants.

Keywords:

Peroxosolvates, disinfection, decontami-nation, hydrogen peroxide, the laboratory regulations, synthesis technology.

Toxicological and sanitary safety at chemical weapons destruction and dismantling or conversion of chemically hazardous facilities.

Year: 2014 (December) Number: №4 Pages: 35-47

Heading: The results of research works in the field of studying the influence on the humans especially dangerous and harmful production factors.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: B.N. Filatov, V.V. Klauchek, N.G. Britanov.

Organization: Federal State Unitary Enterprise “Research Institute of Hygiene, Toxicology, and Occupational Pathology” of Federal Medical and Biological Agency, Volgograd.

Annotation:

Specialized and unified complex of measures to support chemical weapons destruction processes at all stages (from designing of productions to their decommissioning and conversion for benefit of national economy) was developed to provide safety of personnel, population, and environment. Methodological approaches for hygienic support of decommissioning, remediation following exploitation, and conversion of chemical weapons storage and destruction facilities were substantiated. There were developed hygienic standards for the allowable limits of poisoning agents and products of their destruction in working zone and environment. Also, specialized regulatory and procedural guidelines were developed. The documents include sanitary requirements and guidelines for the implementation of Federal State Sanitary-Epidemiological Control and organization of Sanitary-Chemical Control at the facilities, that managed chemical weapons storage and destruction, and for the facilities that were decommissioned, dismantled and conversed.

Regulatory and procedural guidelines combined with approved hygienic standards and certified procedures for measuring of concentration of poisoning agents and their destruction products in the working zone and in the environment will provide sanitary-epidemiological safety at dismantling former facilities that developed, produced and destructed chemical weapons.

Keywords:

Chemical weapons destruction facilities, dismantling, conversion, sanitary-epidemiological control, sanitary-chemical control, hygiene standards, regulatory and procedural documents, safety of personnel and population.

Experimental study of nano-sized titanium dioxide embryotoxicity.

Year: 2014 (December) Number: №4 Pages: 48-58

Heading: The results of research works in the field of studying the influence on the humans especially dangerous and harmful production factors.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: L.P. Tochilkina, L.Yu. Bocharova, M.S. Sroslov, B.N. Filatov, N.V. Khodykina.

Organization: Federal State Unitary Enterprise «Research Institute of Hygiene, Toxicology and Occupational Pathology» of FMBA Russia, Volgograd.

Annotation:

Objective:
Experimental assessment of embryo-toxic properties of nano-sized titanium dioxide by the oral route of administration.

Material and methods:
Researches were performed on white outbred rats during pregnancy the animals were being exposed to 100 mg/kg of water dispersions of nano-sized titanium dioxide powder (a mixture of rutile and anatase particles) and of its macro analogue (chemical reagent “Titanium (IV) oxide «chemically pure». To characterize the effect of titanium dioxide on the females and offsprings postnatal ontogenesis, were used physiological and biochemical research methods.  The impact on the antenatal development was assessed using microanatomical methods for analysis of fetal material. The results of the experiments were statistically processed using criteria which are adequate to the type of empiric distribution of compared parameters.

Results:
Embryotoxic properties of titanium dioxide were comprehensively studied. It was shown that titanium dioxide in macro- and nano-sized particled (100 mg/kg orally) caused rare similar shifts in mother organism. Neither nano-sized titanium dioxide, nor its macro analogue has embryo-lethal and teratogenic effect on the fetus in utero. How-ever both compounds modify postnatal development of the offspring.

Conclusions:
When administered orally at a dose of 100 mg/kg nano-dioxide titanium and its macro analogue exhibit embryo-toxic properties. In both cases the prenatal substance administration effects postnatal ontogenesis. The type of aberration in live-born posterity depends on particle size.

Keywords:

Nanotechnology, safety, titanium dioxide; nanoparticles, pregnancy, females, offspring, embryo-toxicity, teratogenicity, disorders of postnatal ontogenesis​.

Manganese toxic properties and magnese toxicity as a threat to public health.

Year: 2014 (December) Number: №4 Pages: 59-65

Heading: The results of research works in the field of studying the influence on the humans especially dangerous and harmful production factors.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: G.V. Shestova, T.M. Ivanova, G.A. Livanov, K.V. Sizova.

Organization: Institute of Toxicology, Federal Medical-Biological Agency of Russia, St-Petersburg.

Annotation:

The article considers questions of manganese biological function and manganese toxicity, clinical symptoms of intoxication, pathogenesis and diagnostic procedures of chronic manganese intoxication. It is important to detect early symptoms of intoxication. For an early detection it is necessary to consider clinical symptoms along with the results of the clinical and laboratory tests of the patient. That approach shall be sufficient for an effective prevention and treatment of intoxication.

Keywords:

Manganese, toxic properties, chronic intoxication, pathogenesis, diagnostics.

The pharmacological properties of phytomelanin.

Year: 2014 (December) Number: №4 Pages: 66-72

Heading: The results of research works in the field of studying the influence on the humans especially dangerous and harmful production factors.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: A.A. Ivanov, I.E. Andrianova, V.N. Maltsev, A.N. Abrosimova, T.M. Bulynina, S.V. Vorozhtsova, Yu.S. Severyuchin, N.M. Stavrakova.

Organization: Federal State Budgetary Institution “State Research Center – Federal Medical Biophysical Center named by A.I. Burnazyan”, Moscow; Institute of Biomedical Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia; Laboratoty of Radiation Biology, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia.

Annotation:

Literaly and our own data of pharmacological properties of phytomelanine are presented. It was shown that intake of water with phytome lanin demonstrated modulating effects on immuno-hematological status, body weight, physical strength and behavioral. The authors believe, that exogenous melanines that are used in medicinal practice are not the food biologically active additives, therefore they should be studied for other applications, according to the requirements applied to the new pharmacological substances.

The article presents our own findings and data in publications on the pharmacological properties of phytomelanine.

Keywords:

Melanin, body weight, physical strength, behavoioral activity, hematopoiesis.

Preparation of Certified Reference Material beryllium in whole blood.

Year: 2014 (December) Number: №4 Pages: 73-81

Heading: The results of research works in the field of studying the influence on the humans especially dangerous and harmful production factors.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: V.K. Sibiryakov, A.A. Ivanenko, A.M. Malov, L.A. Mukovsky, G.V. Rutkovsky, L.I. Goryaeva.

Organization: «Institute of toxicology» of Federal Medico-Biological Agency, Saint-Petersburg; Federal State Unitary Enterprise «The Ural Research Institute for Metrology», Ekaterinburg.

Annotation:

The new blood Certified Reference Material (CRM) for beryllium was prepared. Material basis of CRM was the bovine blood in which the necessary amount of beryllium salt has been added. Lyophilization was the basic of preparation of the dry stable homogenous reference material of blood containing beryllium. A value reported in the CRM certificate of analysis had been fully investigated. Full Report of Analysis – traceability, stability, reproducibility was carried out as well. It has received the certificate of the state registration №10129-2012 and report of analysis, that is the certification method, description procedure, instruction for use, instruction for packaging, storage, handling.

Keywords:

Beryllium, blood, CRM, homogeneity, stability, certificate of analysis.

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