Medicine of Extreme Situations
Scientific and Practical reviewed Journal
of FMBA of Russia

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№3, 2015 (September)

Medical care – the major element in emergency relief operations in peacetime.

Year: 2015 (September) Number: №3 Pages: 8-12

Heading: Medical sciences.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: K.V. Agapov, N.B. Pavlov, A.A. Shutov.

Organization: Federal Clinical Centre of High Medical Technologies FMBA, Moscow Region.

Annotation:

Both, domestic and foreign experience of the medical care provision in emergency situation have been analyzed. There ware presented some examples of FMBA Multiple-Skill Team participation in particular emergency relief operations in Russian Federation. It was shown, that FMBA medical facilities operate with high efficiency within the system of Emergency Situations Medical Care Provision. The importance for highly qualified and skilled medical care professionals, to participate directly in the emergency situation relief operation - is tremendous. These professionals may begin the provision of qualified medical care directly at the site of the tragedy and during the patient transportation.

Keywords:

Emergency situation, medical care.

Systematic evaluation of the results of psychological examination.

Year: 2015 (September) Number: №3 Pages: 13-19

Heading: Medical sciences.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: A.F. Bobrov, A.Yu. Bushmanov, V.I. Sedin, V.Yu. Shcheblanov.

Organization: Federal Medical Biophysical Center n.a. A.I. Burnazyan at FMBA, Moscow.

Annotation:

The enactment of the Federal law dated 08.03.2011 35-FZ has secured regulatory clearance necessary to conduct psychological examination of certain categories of workers in the nuclear industry in the process of medical examinations in medical institutions of FMBA in Russia [23]. This required consideration of several special but methodologically interrelated scientific challenges. Practical solutions to the challenges assume an availability of modern, science-based methods and techniques applicable for the detection of physiological abnormalities indicating the presence of conditions that are medical contraindications to the professional occupation. The experience in psycho-physiological medical examinations has reasoned the application of various psychological, psychophysiological and physiological methods required in understanding the psycho-physiological adaptation level, that we view as a systemic response of the human organism to the external and internal stimuli and factors aimed to achieve the positive coping. The results of psychophysiological surveys conducted in LLC “Rosatom” confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed approach in identification of physiological contra-indications in employees in the course of preliminary and periodic medical examinations, as well as evaluating the effectiveness of rehabilitation and Wellness activities.

Keywords:

Psychophysiological examination, medical contraindications, physiological abnormalities, physiological adaptation, hardware-software complex.

Organization principles at the fmba dental service resumed from the dental practitioners survey.

Year: 2015 (September) Number: №3 Pages: 20-23

Heading: Medical sciences.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: V.N. Olesova, V.V. Uiba, E.Yu. Khavkina, E.E. Olesov, T.N. Novozemtseva, A.N. Shmakov, E.Yu. Chujanova.

Organization: FSBOI CPE «Institute for Advanced Training of FMBA», Moscow.

Annotation:

The article presents survey results from 150 dentist practitioners at Healthcare Institutions, regarding the current trend to lay-off dentist practitioners and reduce the volume of preventive care provided in schools and at the manufacturing facilities. Established dental service problems related to the lack of regulatory documents required for routine dental inspections for employees working in hazardous conditions, low tariffs in Mandatory Health Insurance (MHI) for dental services, insufficient wages and difficulties with housing accommodations for young dental professionals.

Keywords:

Dental practitioners, questionnaires, company, problems.

Modern concepts of viral hepatitis C infection. Development of novel antiviral medications.

Year: 2015 (September) Number: №3 Pages: 24-37

Heading: Medical sciences.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: A.A. Nikonova, M.R. Khaitov.

Organization: National Research Center Institute of Immunology of Federal Medical Biological Agency; Mechnikov Scientific Research Institute of Vaccines and Serums.

Annotation:

Enormous progress has been made in the understanding of the hepatitis C virus life cycle and the development of novel therapeutic agents since the identification of the virus 25 years ago. In the early 2000s, pegylated interferon in combination with ribavirin became the standard of anti-HCV treatment. However, this therapy is not ideal. It is likely that the new interferon-free, pan-genotyping anti-HCV therapy (including siRNA-based) will be available within the next few years.

Keywords:

Hepatitis C virus, treatment, interferon, direct acting antivirals, hosttargeted agents, siRNA.

The “Grippol” vaccine in rats, shows growth inhibition in radiation-induced mammary tumors: the role of microRNA.

Year: 2015 (September) Number: №3 Pages: 38-48

Heading: Medical sciences.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: L.V. Shulenina, V.F. Mikhailov, V.S. Kalistratova, A.A. Ivanov, A.S. Samoilov.

Organization: State Scientific Research Center n.a. A. I. Burnazyan – Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency, Moscow.

Annotation:

On the model of white outbred female rats, exposed to acute radiation in the dose of 2.5 Gy, we studied the option to inhibit radiation-induced mammary tumors growth, using “Grippol” vaccine based on the miRNAs mechanisms. It has been proven that the introduction of the «Grippol» vaccine two weeks prior the exposure, postpones the tumor development. Repeated administration of the “Grippol” vaccine in 2 weeks and 6 months after the exposure does not provide the mentioned “shielding effect”. Molecular studies have shown that it is common for spontaneous and radiation-induced mammary gland tumors, have decreases transcription activity in gene р53 and increases expression of mature miR-125b, let-7i, miR-21. These changes worsen the function of p53-dependent system that maintains genome stability. Significant reduction р53 and miR-34c expression in bone marrow was observed only during the period prior to any tumor formation in rats (75 days after radiation). Immunization of animals prevented imbalance in mature microRNA, modulating the р53-system work during this period. The changes of p53, mdm2, mdm4 expression and microRNA were not observed in 315 days after irradiation in rats’ bone marrow, yet they were present in mammary gland tumors. High expression of miR-125b, miR-21, miR-16-2, let-7i was found in the bone marrow of rats on 550 days after radiation exposure. The presented results demonstrate the importance of the balance indicators of р53-dependent genome stability systems to reduce the risk of radiogenic carcinogenesis.

Keywords:

Vaccine “Grippol”, rats, radiation carcinogenesis, mammary gland, bone marrow, the tumor suppressor p53, microRNA.

Experience of selective lypopolysaccharide adsorption in combined therapy for meningococcal sepsis in children (clinical observation).

Year: 2015 (September) Number: №3 Pages: 50-57

Heading: Medical sciences.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: Yu.V. Lobzin, N.V. Skripchenko, G.P. Ivanova, K.V. Serednyakov, A.G. Baindurashvili.

Organization: Scientific Research Institute of Children’s Infections, Saint Petersburg; North-West State Medical University named after I.I. Mechnikov, Saint Petersburg; Saint Petersburg State Pediatric Medical University, Saint Petersburg; Scientific Research Institute for Children’s Orthopedics named after G.I. Turner, Saint Petersburg.

Annotation:

The article analyses progression of the meningococcal septic shock with Waterhouse – Friderichsen syndrome in 2 children, aged: 9 mo. and 2 y. 7 mo. Both children were getting standard medical antibacterial and anti-shock therapy and extracorporal methods of detoxication — LPS-adsorption in the combination with prolonged hemodiafiltration. The child of 2 y.7 mo. underwent the of LPS-adsorption procedure on the TORAY RMX unit — 20R column (Toraymyxin TM, Toray, Japan) 12 hours after the hospitalization, and survived. The 9 months old patient, who went through the LPS-adsorption procedure only on the 4th and 5th days of the hospitalization, did not survive. The analysis of these cases allowed the authors to make a conclusion that early LPS-adsorption procedure in the case of meningococcal shock, makes it possible to remove from peripheral blood the main pathogenic component — meningococcal lypopolysaccharide, — one of the crucial factors in the survival of patients with this infectious pathology.

Keywords:

Meningococcal septic shock, Waterhouse–Friderichsen syndrome, LPS-adsorption, children.

Intra-procedural medications in endoskopic interventions on extrahepatic biliary tracts.

Year: 2015 (September) Number: №3 Pages: 59-64

Heading: Medical sciences.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: N.P. Istomin, K.V. Agapov, G.V. Bekhtev, V.F. Kolygaev, M.F. Kuchkarov, N.B. Pavlov.

Organization: Federal Clinical Centre of High Medical Technologies FMBA, Moscow Region; Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education, Institute for Continuing Education FMBA.

Annotation:

It was investigated the efficiency of introduction of specific spasmolysant and synthetic analogue of somatostatin into the treatment of patients with choledocholithiasis, requiring in endoscopic papillosphincterotomy. Application of an investigated method improves results of treatment, allows to restore a bile passage on extrahepatic bilious tracts in earlier terms, permits faster to cut off the phenomena of hepatic insufficiency and gives a chance of the performance earlier the second stage treatment of the gallstones by way of laparoscopy cholecystectomy.

Keywords:

Gallstones, choledocholithiasis, obstructive (mechanical) jaundice, papillosphincterotomy, pancreatitis, cholecystectomy, dicetel, pinaverium, somatostatin, octreotide.

Methodology a comprehensive monitoring psychological chemical health working in extreme conditions and population, living near a potentially dangerous objects.

Year: 2015 (September) Number: №3 Pages: 65-71

Heading: Occupational safety and security.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: V.L. Filippov, V.R. Rembovskiy, Yu.V. Filippova.

Organization: Research Institute of Hygiene, Occupational Pathology and Human Ecology Federal State Unitary Enterprise, Federal Medical Biological Agency.

Annotation:

The system of complex monitoring of mental health and practical approaches to objective assessment of possible adverse effects of working conditions and the environment on the health status of workers occupied at hazardous wotking conditions and the population living at terrirtories adjacent to potentially hazardous objects are considered. It is shown that the neuropsychic sphere of people is subject to a multifactor negative impact and the contribution of each factor in direct or delayed mental health impairment is difficult to quantify.

Keywords:

Mental health, workers, population, environment, monitoring, potentially hazardous objects, highly toxic chemicals, ecology.

Nanoparticles as a potential threat to the environment.

Year: 2015 (September) Number: №3 Pages: 73-77

Heading: Occupational safety and security.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: Yu.I. Velikorodnaya, A.Ya. Pocheptsov.

Organization: Federal State Unitary Enterprise Research Institute of Hygiene, Toxicology and Occupational Pathology FMBA of Russia, Volgograd.

Annotation:

This review summarizes the challenges and unresolved problems arise around nanotechnology in people’s day-to-day activity. The article lists nanoparticles sources of natural and anthropogenic origin. The current knowledge about the threat nanoparticles may be to the environment and human health was considered on the examples metal nanoparticles and metal oxides. The sufficiency and objectivity of obtained information was evaluated. This review presents existing problems related to the potential impact nanomaterials may have on the eco-systems. Conclusion. The main directions in the study of nanoparticles and nanomaterials is to minimize the associated risks with their production, use and disposal are proposed.

Keywords:

Nanoparticles, nanotechnology, risks, environment.

Experimental evaluation of water reservoirs contamination by gunpowder component.

Year: 2015 (September) Number: №3 Pages: 78-86

Heading: Occupational safety and security.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: A.A. Maslennikov, S.A. Demidova, A.V. Ryabova.

Organization: Federal State Unitary Enterprise «Research Institute for Hygiene, Toxicology and Occupational Pathology» at Federal Medical and Biological Agency (FSUE «RIHTOP» FMBA Russia), Volgograd.

Annotation:

Goal of the research. Ecological-and-toxicological risk assessment of polyvinyl butyral presence in water reservoirs. The sample of polyvinyl butyral standard was used as the present study object (PVB, full acetal of polyvinyl alcohol and butyl aldehyde, butvar, vinylite, butacite, movital B et al., C16H28O) with a specific gravity d420 = 1,08 g/cm3 , molecular weight 300.39532 g/mol. CAS63148-65-2. The compound is the colorless amorphous polymer. It is insoluble in paraffinic hydrocarbons, water, benzene, diethyl ether. Summarizing the results of the above study, it may be noted that the test substance has an adverse effect on the general sanitary conditions of water bodies. A similar negative effect the compound exhibits by the characterization of the sanitary-and-toxicological criterion of harmfulness in conditions of a single and a long-term oral exposure in laboratory animals. The identified specific fate of polyvinyl butyral in water reservoirs will be taken into account for justifying its MAC in that ecosystem.

Keywords:

Water, polyvinyl butyral, water reservoirs hygiene, general toxic action, long-term effects, threshold level.

Vibration and noice health impact assessment in employees at GKNPTS of M.V. Khrunichev.

Year: 2015 (September) Number: №3 Pages: 87-90

Heading: Occupational safety and security.

Article type: Scientific article.

Authors: T.S. Vorojeikina, V.N. Goldobin, S.P. Gubareva, S.L. Zaozerskaya, S.V. Malyshev, N.M. Savicheva, G.N. Fedoseeva, A.A. Filippov, L.G. Chareva.

Organization: Federal State Institution of Public Health, Centre of Hygiene and Epidemiology №119, Russia, Khimki; Institute of Continuing Professional Education at the Federal State Budgetary Institution «State Research Center named after A.I. Burnazyan», FMBA, Russia, Moscow.

Annotation:

The Sanitary and Hygine assessment at an industrial facility shall begin with the first time ever documented occupational pathology, followed by the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the working environment, to establish the cause-effect relationships between the employee’s health status and the working environment at the mentioned facility.

Keywords:

Social-hygienic monitoring; occupational diseases, noise, vibration.

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